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Description

Verifies the data type of a query parameter and, for DBMSs that support bind variables, enables ColdFusion to use bind variables in the SQL statement. Bind variable usage enhances performance when executing a cfquery statement multiple times.

This tag is nested within a cfquery tag, embedded in a query SQL statement. If you specify optional parameters, this tag performs data validation.

Adobe recommends that you use the cfqueryparam tag within every cfquery tag, to help secure your databases from unauthorized users. For more information, see Security Bulletin ASB99-04, “ Multiple SQL Statements in Dynamic Queries,” at www.adobe.com/go/sn_asb99-04, and Accessing and Retrieving Data in the Developing ColdFusion Applications.

Category

Database manipulation tags

Syntax

<cfquery  
    name = "query name" 
    dataSource = "data source name" 
    ...other attributes... 
    SQL STATEMENT column_name =  
    <cfqueryparam value = "parameter value" 
        CFSQLType = "parameter type" 
        list = "yes|no" 
        maxLength = "maximum parameter length" 
        null = "yes|no" 
        scale = "number of decimal places" 
        separator = "separator character"> 
    AND/OR ...additional criteria of the WHERE clause...> 
</cfquery>
Note: You can specify this tag’s attributes in an attributeCollection attribute whose value is a structure. Specify the structure name in the attributeCollection attribute and use the tag’s attribute names as structure keys.

See also

cfinsert, cfprocparam, cfprocresult, cfquery, cfstoredproc, cftransaction, cfupdate; Enhancing security with cfqueryparam in the Developing ColdFusion Applications

Attributes

Attribute

Req/Opt

Default

Description

value

Required

Value that ColdFusion passes to the right of the comparison operator in a where clause.

If CFSQLType is a date or time option, ensure that the date value uses your DBMS-specific date format. Use the CreateODBCDateTime or DateFormat and TimeFormat functions to format the date value.

CFSQLType

Optional

CF_SQL_CHAR

SQL type that parameter (any type) is bound to:

  • CF_SQL_BIGINT

  • CF_SQL_BIT

  • CF_SQL_CHAR

  • CF_SQL_BLOB

  • CF_SQL_CLOB

  • CF_SQL_DATE

  • CF_SQL_DECIMAL

  • CF_SQL_DOUBLE

  • CF_SQL_FLOAT

  • CF_SQL_IDSTAMP

  • CF_SQL_INTEGER

  • CF_SQL_LONGVARCHAR

  • CF_SQL_MONEY

  • CF_SQL_MONEY4

  • CF_SQL_NUMERIC

  • CF_SQL_REAL

  • CF_SQL_REFCURSOR

  • CF_SQL_SMALLINT

  • CF_SQL_TIME

  • CF_SQL_TIMESTAMP

  • CF_SQL_TINYINT

  • CF_SQL_VARCHAR

list

Optional

no

  • yes: the value attribute value is a delimited list.

  • no

maxLength

Optional

Length of string in value attribute

Maximum length of parameter. Ensures that the length check is done by ColdFusion before the string is sent to the DBMS, thereby helping to prevent the submission of malicious strings.

null

Optional

no

Whether parameter is passed as a null value:

  • yes: tag ignores the value attribute.

  • no

scale

Optional

0

Number of decimal places in parameter. Applies to CF_SQL_NUMERIC and CF_SQL_DECIMAL.

separator

Required, if you specify a list in value attribute

, (comma)

Character that separates values in list, in value attribute.

Usage

Use the cfqueryparam tag in any SQL statement (for example, SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE) that uses ColdFusion variables.

For maximum validation of string data, specify the maxlength attribute.

This tag does the following:

  • Allows the use of SQL bind parameters, which improves performance.

  • Ensures that variable data matches the specified SQL type.

  • Allows long text fields to be updated from a SQL statement.

  • Escapes string variables in single-quotation marks.

To benefit from the enhanced performance of bind variables, use cfqueryparam for all ColdFusion variables, and your DBMS must support bind variables. If a DBMS does not support bind parameters, ColdFusion validates and substitutes the validated parameter value back into the string. If validation fails, it returns an error message.

The validation rules are as follows:

  • For these types, a data value can be converted to a numeric value: CF_SQL_SMALLINT, CF_SQL_INTEGER, CF_SQL_REAL, CF_SQL_FLOAT, CF_SQL_DOUBLE, CF_SQL_TINYINT, CF_SQL_MONEY, CF_SQL_MONEY4, CF_SQL_DECIMAL, CF_SQL_NUMERIC, and CF_SQL_BIGINT

  • For these types, a data value can be converted to a date supported by the target data source: CF_SQL_DATE, CF_SQL_TIME, CF_SQL_TIMESTAMP

  • For all other types, if the maxLength attribute is used, a data value cannot exceed the maximum length specified.

ColdFusion debug output shows the bind variables as question marks and lists the values beneath the query, in order of usage.

Note: To insert an empty string into a Microsoft Access table using the SequelLink ODBC Socket or SequelLink Access driver, the CFSQLType attribute must specify CF_SQL_LONGVARCHAR.

The following table shows the mapping of ColdFusion SQL data types with JDBC SQL types and those of the listed database management systems:

ColdFusion

JDBC

DB2

Informix

Oracle

MSSQL

CF_SQL_ARRAY

ARRAY

 

 

 

CF_SQL_BIGINT

BIGINT

Bigint

int8, serial8

 

bigint

CF_SQL_BINARY

BINARY

Char for Bit Data

 

 

binary

timestamp

CF_SQL_BIT

BIT

boolean

 

bit

CF_SQL_BLOB

BLOB

Blob

blob

blob, bfile

longvarbinary 

CF_SQL_CHAR

CHAR

Char

char, nchar

char, nchar

char

CF_SQL_CLOB

CLOB

Clob

clob

clob,nclob

 

CF_SQL_DATE

DATE

Date

date, datetime, year to day

 

 date

CF_SQL_DECIMAL

DECIMAL

Decimal

decimal, money

number

decimal

CF_SQL_DISTINCT

DISTINCT

 

 

 

CF_SQL_DOUBLE

DOUBLE

Double

 

 

double 

CF_SQL_FLOAT

FLOAT

Float

float

number

real

CF_SQL_IDSTAMP

CHAR

Char

char, nchar

char, nchar

char

CF_SQL_INTEGER

INTEGER

Integer

integer, serial

 

integer

CF_SQL_LONGVARBINARY

LONGVARBINARY

Long Varchar for Bit Data

byte

long raw

longvarbinary

CF_SQL_LONGVARCHAR

LONGVARCHAR

Long Varchar

text

long

longvarchar

CF_SQL_MONEY

DOUBLE

Double

 

 

 double

CF_SQL_MONEY4

DOUBLE

Double

 

 

double 

CF_SQL_NULL

NULL

 

 

 

CF_SQL_NUMERIC

NUMERIC

Numeric

 

 

numeric

CF_SQL_OTHER

OTHER

 

 

 

CF_SQL_REAL

REAL

Real

smallfloat

 

real

CF_SQL_REFCURSOR

REF

 

 

 

CF_SQL_SMALLINT

SMALLINT

Smallint

smallint

 

smallint

CF_SQL_STRUCT

STRUCT

 

 

 

CF_SQL_TIME

TIME

Time

datetime hour to second

 

time 

CF_SQL_TIMESTAMP

TIMESTAMP

Timestamp

datetime year to fraction(5), datetime year to second

date

timestamp

CF_SQL_TINYINT

TINYINT

 

 

tinyint

CF_SQL_VARBINARY

VARBINARY

Rowid

 

raw

varbinary

CF_SQL_VARCHAR

VARCHAR

Varchar

varchar, nvarchar, lvarchar

varchar2, nvarchar2

varchar

Example

<!--- This example shows cfqueryparam with VALID input in Course_ID. ---> 
<h3>cfqueryparam Example</h3> 
<cfset Course_ID = 12> 
<cfquery name = "getFirst" dataSource = "cfdocexamples"> 
    SELECT *  
    FROM courses 
    WHERE Course_ID = <cfqueryPARAM value = "#Course_ID#" 
    CFSQLType = 'CF_SQL_INTEGER'>  
</cfquery> 
<cfoutput query = "getFirst"> 
    <p>Course Number: #Course_ID#<br> Description: #descript#</p> 
</cfoutput> 
 
<!--- This example shows the use of CFQUERYPARAM when INVALID string data is  
    in Course_ID. ---->  
<p>This example throws an error because the value passed in the CFQUERYPARAM tag exceeds the 
    MAXLENGTH attribute</p>  
 
<cfset LastName="Peterson; DELETE employees WHERE LastName='Peterson'"> 
<!------- Note that for string input you must specify the MAXLENGTH attribute  
    for validation. -------------------------------------------------->  
<cfquery  
    name="getFirst" datasource="cfdocexamples">  
    SELECT *  
    FROM employees  
    WHERE LastName=<cfqueryparam  
                value="#LastName#"  
                cfsqltype="CF_SQL_VARCHAR"  
                maxlength="17">  
</cfquery>  
<cfoutput  
    query="getFirst">         <p> 
        Course Number: #FirstName# #LastName#  
        Description: #Department# </p>  
</cfoutput>